I did a little poking around on the web, and found a few samples of Dutch Virginal music from the time of Vermeer. Check out the samples if you'd like to hear what it may have sounded like—or don't; leave the mystery intact.
This turned into a pretty good game for viewing the collection. Sometimes it's a little hard to find just an audio file—without distracting videos attached. Here's a few more samples that I was able to dig up:
In these two paintings it's the Lute. I had a little bit better idea with that, but 16th-17th century? Hmm.
Here's a link to what they all must have been playing. Sample 3
A favorite painting, by a favorite painter: Manet's The Fifer. (The model for this painting may actually have been Manet's female acquaintance Victorine Meurent -just FYI).
Here's a good example of distracting video (the drama!), but it's genuine French martial fife music. Sample 4
And finally, a little Americana—although with Cassatt you really cannot say if it's America, because she painted so long in Europe.
My best guess as to the audio? Sample 5